BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Several hereditary disorders affecting coagulation factors have been identified as prothrombotic risk factors. Recently, the common Val34Leu polymorphism of the A-chain factor XIII gene, associated with high factor XIII activity, has been identified as a protective genetic factor against occlusive arterial and venous diseases in British and Finnish populations. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of this polymorphism in arterial and venous thromboembolic disorders in a distinct population. DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed the prevalence of this polymorphism in three case/control studies of consecutive patients from the south of Spain diagnosed as having acute coronary syndromes (101), acute cerebrovascular events (104), and deep venous thrombosis (97). RESULTS: No significant differences were detected in the prevalence of genotypes or alleles between patients and controls. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The Leu 34 allele does not play an important role in the development of thromboembolic episodes in the Spanish population.